Pathophysiology of Renal Failure

Renal failure is not an independent disease but a pathological condition that is a companion of various diseases, including those not related to the kidneys. Pathology affects not only their performance but also the body as a whole. It occurs in both men and women. But in connection with the anatomical features, the nature of the course differs in different sexes.


Renal failure appears as a result of other diseases in the body, including pyelonephritis, amyloidosis, or polycystic kidney disease. Also, such a kidney function disorder can be caused by:

  • congenital pathologies of the structure or functioning of the kidneys, the presence of only one kidney or irreversible disorders in one of them;
  • diabetes;
  • deposit of kidney stones;
  • body weight far exceeding the norm;
  • cirrhosis;
  • polycystic kidney disease;
  • gout;
  • late diagnosis of other renal diseases;
  • lupus erythematosus;
  • a wide range of urinary system disorders;
  • non-compliance with the instructions or abuse of certain drugs;
  • oncological neoplasms;
  • intoxication of the body;
  • acute chemical poisoning.

Stages of renal failure

Chronic kidney disease is observed in 500 out of a million patients undergoing treatment, however, this figure is growing steadily every year. Due to the disease, a gradual death of the tissue and the loss of all its functions by the organ are observed. Medicine knows four stages of chronic renal failure that accompany the course of the disease:

  1. The first stage proceeds almost imperceptibly, the patient may not even guess about the disease. The latent period is characterized by increased physical fatigue. It is possible to identify the disease only with a biochemical study;
  2. At the compensated stage, an increase in the number of urinations is observed against the background of general weakness. The pathological process can be detected by the results of blood tests;
  3. The intermittent stage is characterized by a sharp deterioration in the functioning of the kidneys, which is accompanied by an increase in the concentration of creatinine and other products of nitrogen metabolism in the blood;
  4. According to the etiology, renal failure at the terminal stage causes irreversible changes in the functioning of all body systems. The patient feels constant emotional instability, lethargy or drowsiness, appearance worsens, appetite disappears. A consequence of the last stage of chronic renal failure is uremia, aphthous stomatitis or dystrophy of the heart muscle.
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The prognosis regarding the course of chronic renal failure depends on the stage at which it was detected, and on the cause. If the provoking disease needs to be completely cured, then with a high degree of probability a positive outcome can be predicted. If there is practically no normal functioning tissue, the only way is the regular procedure of hardware purification of blood and organ transplantation.

But in any case, early diagnosis and adequate treatment demonstrate high results, increasing the period of functional activity of the paired organ and reducing the risks of complications. Hemodialysis and transplantation of a donor’s kidney can dramatically change the fate of patients with chronic renal failure, allowing you to extend the life and achieve rehabilitation for many years.