What Causes Renal Failure?


There are two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2. Type 1 diabetes means that the body does not produce enough insulin to regulate blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes means that the tissues become insensitive to the action of insulin produced in the body.

If diabetes is not properly controlled, sugar begins to build up in the blood. When the blood sugar level becomes too high – it can damage the kidneys, reduce their function, which consists of filtering waste products and fluids. Although diabetes treatment has improved, many people with diabetes may still develop kidney damage 20-30 years after the disease onset.

High blood pressure (hypertension)

High blood pressure occurs when blood pressure on the walls rises. High blood pressure damages small blood vessels in the kidneys and interferes with the normal implementation of the filtration process. The causes of high blood pressure, for the most part, are unknown. However, in many cases, they are presumably related to general health, lifestyle, and nutrition.

Inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis)

Another common type of kidney disease is inflammation of the filtering units of the kidneys. This can cause a decrease in the outflow of urine, the penetration of blood and protein into the urine and puffiness of the eyelids, arms, and legs (edema).

Other causes of renal failure

Polycystic kidney disease is a hereditary disease that can cause the formation of cysts in the kidneys. It can result in kidney failure.

Obstacles to urine outflow cause urine to flow back to the kidneys, which can damage them. Obstacles can be caused by the narrowing of the urethra, which is often caused by kidney stones, tumors, or enlargement of the prostate gland in men.

Recurrent urinary tract infections can also cause kidney failure.

Unknown causes

About 20 % of dialysis patients do not know the cause of renal failure. These patients often seek treatment for the first time when their kidney failure is advanced. At this stage, it is difficult to establish the disease cause.